SIR JOHN SIMON
Mr Simon was a distinguished pathologist and surgeon. He had been made medical officer of health of the City on London in 1848, and then in 1855, medical officer to the Board of Health. In the same year, he was appointed adviser to the Privy Council. He was a well-connected surgeon and pathologist of conservative political views; but the end of the Crimea war he was the Medical Officer to the new Board of Health and soon became the country’s virtual public health dictator. His high-tech medical and scientific theories of public health were in complete opposition to Chadwick`s theory that sanitary science was a subsidiary department of engineering.
He was a prominent member of the Committee of the London Stock Exchange, and had become a Fellow of the Royal Society at a young age through his research in pathology. He had established a reputation for himself in the City by publishing inspirational and controversial annual reports.
John Simon tended to employ medical men on the way up the career ladder of that profession, rather than doctors and engineers committed to sanitation of the type favoured by Chadwick. He believed that disease could only be prevented when its causes had been discovered and felt that the Government should devote resources to medical research rather than prevention.
In 1864, an investigation was to be carried out, sponsored by Mr Simon, to report on the sanitary conditions of all hospitals in the country. Miss Nightingale did not like Mr Simon or appreciate the work he was doing. It was therefore in 1864 she made a serious attempt to interfere with his work. Mr Simon had nominated Dr Bristowe a well-known physician at St Thomas’s and Medical Officer of Health for Camberwell. Also Mr Timothy Holmes a surgeon at St George’s Hospital to carry out the investigation. When they had reported on all the hospitals in this country, they visited hospitals in Paris. Florence Nightingale felt that better men could have been chosen for this task. Upon writing to Mr Robert Lowe, who had the power of nomination, he replied that he could not have found two men more suitable for the task. It was Mr Simon she disapproved of most. She did not Feel that he had enough knowledge to carry out his task for the best results of the report. Perhaps she felt that he should have consulted her on sanitary matters, which he never did. Mr Lowe had written to Florence Nightingale defending Mr. Simon, he felt that her prejudice was undue. He also pointed out to her, (what he called oversight) fault in collecting the right information to give true workable statistics. The fact that even in an unhealthy hospital may have a lower death rate per bed that a healthy one. It should be taken into consideration the number of people who occupied the beds in the course of a year. In one sense every hospital ought to be unhealthy, that is, the refuge for disease, and in that sense the healthier it is (that is the better it is conducted) the more unhealthy it will be. It was with Simon that Florence Nightingale had disagreed with over the new site for St Thomas’s Hospital.
Mr Simon became Sir John Simon in 1887.
13th November 1897
Dear Miss Nightingale,
With apologies for my intrusion, which let me hope you will excuse when I plead that I an 81 years old, may I take the liberty of begging you to do me the honour of accepting from me the copy which I herewith send of the new edition of my English Sanitary Institutions. I am well aware that it can give you no new knowledge in its main subject matter; but incidentally it tells the story of what I have tried to do for the interests which you have made your own, that I venture, in now preparing to leave the scene, to beg for a little place in your recollection.
My almost blindness has obliged me to delay till I could include in the note what I have to say on another subject, my very earnest thanks for the kindness you have acceded to my petition that my grand-niece Jane Blake, might be admitted to the staff which is yours at my dear old hospital. I beg you to believe that I would not have recommended her to you unless I had sincerely believed that she would devote herself dutifully to the work; and it is my earnest hope that when her year’s probation is completed she may be found not unworthy to fill a permanent place in the surgical service of the hospital. If you still sometimes (as I hope) find yourself able to see them, or some of them who are being educated under your influence, I would venture to beg you to let her be of the number and that she may be able to carry on with her through life the memory of one who will be her example.
Believe me, dear Miss Nightingale, with truer respect than my crippled handwriting can express.
Ever your faithful servant,
EDWIN CHADWICK [1801-1890]
Edwin Chadwick was a sharp minded north countryman. Since 1834 had been Secretary of the Poor Law Commissioners, and published a ‘Report on the Sanitary Conditions of the Labouring Population’ (1842). The Poor Law Amendment Act (1834) was his first great achievement. The Elizabethan Poor Laws, administered in the parishes, had become a heavy and unevenly spread burden on rates, and the availability of workers on outdoor poor relief encouraged employers to pay low wages. A Royal Commission was set up, and was chaired by Bishop Blomfield and included the economist Nasseau Senior, but Chadwick took on most of the work, and the Act contained many of his solutions. It was designed to make Poor Relief an unattractive alternative to paid work – the principle of less eligibility. Workhouses were set up, administered by Poor Law Unions, supervised by a three-man Commission through a small team of Inspectors. Bad food, the segregation of the sexes, and harsh types of work, made the workhouses ineligible. Chadwick had intended different arrangements for the old and the infirm, and education for the children, but these were a step too far for those contemplating the expansion of central government. The Commissioners themselves flinched from the full application of the Law in the north, where unemployment was heaviest in recessions, with outdoor relief alone making life bearable. Eventually relations between Chadwick and the Commissioners became so bad they eased him out. By then he had become a target for powerful enemies, such as John Walter, Editor of `The Times`, and Charles Dickens, and, for all the tender-hearted and down trodden, he was the architect of the hated `Poor Law `Bastille’s`
The Government set up a commission of inquiry into the ‘Health of Towns’, two reports were published in 1844 and 1845 based on enquiries into sanitary conditions in a group of large industrial towns. In Industrial towns the annual death rate was rising: in Birmingham between 1831 and 1841 it rose from 14.6 to 27.2 per thousand. Refuse piled up, sewage contaminated the water supply, smoke hung thick in the air. It was Chadwick`s report on the Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Classes to establish the connection between all this and the health of the people. Once again he had aimed to high for those in power. This led to reforms in the 1840’s and 1850’s. He was on the General Board of Health from 1848 until 1854. The Public Health Act 1848, setting up central Board of Health contained detailed regulations about sanitation. Local boards only compulsory where death rate more than 23 per 1000. Property-owners incomes and rights affected many achieve little. The Central Board had little real power or money to spend, and only survived 10 years.
He was also a Royal Commissioner enquiring on:
Poor Law 1833
Child Labour in Factories
Rural Constabulary 1836
Sanitary Conditions of the labouring Population 1830 – published in 1842
London Sanitation for Sewers
And published Reports on:
Health of Towns 1844 and 1845
Chadwick was dismissed in 1854, he spoke and wrote on an enormous range of subjects: sanitation in the tropics (Indian Army), agricultural drainage and sewage, competitive examination, cost accounting and time-and-motion studies for the Civil Service, education for pauper children and school drill, state ownership of railways, and a host of smaller topics on which he held opinions, such as new methods of making bread and cures for sea-sickness.
He was a barrister turned public official, and had no official recognition of his work until 1889, when he received a knighthood.
SIDNEY HERBERT [1810-1861]
Sidney Herbert was the only son of George Augustus Herbert 11th Earl of Pembroke (1759-1827) and his second wife, Catherine Woroizow. She was the daughter of Count Simon Woroizow, the Russian Ambassador in London. They had six children Sidney being the only son.
Sidney Herbert was educated at Harrow and Oriel College Oxford. He entered Parliament at the age of twenty-two in 1833 as member for Wiltshire, he was junior minister at twenty-four and entered Peel’s Cabinet as Secretary at war in 1845. He was reappointed by Aberdeen in 1852, and stayed in the Cabinet when Palmerston succeeded Aberdeen. During his time he had to cope with the Crimean War, where the short comings of the Army were painfully exposed, also the Indian Mutiny.
It was in 1846 that Sidney Herbert married Elizabeth a Court daughter of Lieu-General Charles a Court. In 1860 Sidney Herbert was created a Baron, thus making him 1st Baron Herbert of Lea. They were to have four sons and three daughters. Two of his sons became Earls of Pembroke, and the Barony of Lea is merged in that title. He rented the family home Wilton House Salisbury in Wiltshire from his half-brother Robert, 12th Earl of Pembroke 1791-1862. As Robert lived abroad, it was not necessary for him to use his home in England. Sidney Herbert treated the tenants on his estate well, and supported many good causes.
Florence Nightingale looked to him to transform the health of the army, and of the Indian army too. He chaired all four of the sub-committees of the Royal Commission on sanitary conditions in the Army, which he had set up. An Army Medical School was decreed, after three years there were sites but no buildings, professors but no salaries, requisition forms but no equipment.
The Herbert’s were to be friends with Miss Nightingale during their life times. Sidney was to devote much of his life to her.
LORD FITZOY JAMES HENRY SOMERSET
1st BARON RAGLAN [1788-1855]
Lord Fitzoy James Henry Somerset, 1st Baron Raglan, was the eighth and youngest son of the 5th Duke of Beaufort. He was born at Badminton in 1788 and was educated at Westminster School. He was commissioned as a young cornet, in the 4th Light Dragoons in June 1804. Then transferred to the 43rd Regiment of Foot and went to Portugal at aide-de-camp to Sir Arthur Wellesley, future Duke of Wellington. In January 1815, he was made a KCB, and then transferred to the Life Guards as Lieutenant Colonel. He married the Duke of Wellington’s niece.
At the Battle of Waterloo his right arm was hit by a musket shot, and had to have his arm amputated. Lord Raglan was Member of Parliament for Truro in 1818 and 1826. In 1854, when he was sixty-six he was appointed to command the British forces going to the Crimea. He was not a good leader, he was shy, and blushed easily. He also gave imprecise orders, such as the famous one which led to the Light Brigade charging the wrong guns. Raglan had the affection of the soldiers, but he felt and over whelming sense of loneliness and desertion. He allowed himself, once again, against his better judgement to follow a French lead and assault the Russian positions at Redan without proper preparation. The heavy casualties and the reproaches of his men drove him into deeper depression. It took only a minor illness to overcome him, and he died with Sebastopol still untaken.
He was buried privately at Badminton on July 1855.
The Raglan sleeve is named after Lord Raglan. The sleeve which slants up the shoulder to the neck, was the result of his thoughtfulness in clothing his soldiers in sacks as an extra layer of clothing against the savage Russian winter. A hole for the head and a slightly caped effect gave the lead for the sartorial innovation still with us today.
LORD JOHN RUSSELL [1792-1878]
The Rt. Hon. Lord John Russell, and after 30 July 1861, 1st Earl Russell, KG (1862), Knight Grand Cross of the most Distinguished Order of St. Michael, and St George (GCMG)1869. He was born on 18th August 1792 at Pembroke Lodge, Richmond Park, Surrey, and also died there on 28 May 1878, and was buried in Chenis, Bucks. He was married twice, first in 1835 to Adelaide (nee Lister), Dowager Baroness Ribblesdale who died in 1838. They had two daughters. Lady Frances Anna Maria Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound was his second wife who he married in 1841, she died in 1898. They had three sons and three daughters. Lord Russell was educated at Westminster School and Edinburgh University.
He was MP (Whig) for Tavistock in 1813-17, 1818-20 and 1830-1; Hunts 1820-6; Bandon 1826-30; Devon 1831-2; South Devon 1832-5; Stroud 1835-41; City of London 1841-61. He took a seat in the House of Lords on 30 July 1861.
EDWARD GEOFFREY SMITH-STANLEY
EARL OF DERBY – LORD STANLEY
The 14th Earl of Derby, Rt. Hon. Sir Edward Geoffrey Smith-Stanley Bt, (1859) GCMG (1869), PC 1830, PC(1) 1831; prior to 1834 known as the Hon E. G. Stanley, MP; then known as Lord Stanley MP until 1844; He was born on 19th March 1799 in Knowsley, Lancs, and died on 23rd October 1869 he was buried in Knowsley, Lancs. In 1825 he married the Hon. Emma Caroline Wilbraham-Bootle , who died in 1876. They had two sons and one daughter. He was educated at Eton, Christ Church and Oxford. (Chancellor’s prize for Latin Verse).
Ministry, a) 23rd February 1852 to 18 December 1852, b) 20th February 1858 to 11 June 1859, c) 28th June 1866 to 26th February 1868;He became MP (Whig) for Stockbridge from 1822-6, Preston 1826-30; Windsor 1831-2; North Lancs 1832-44. He was summoned in 1844 to the House of Lords as Lord Stanley (of Bickerstaffe). He succeeded to Earldom in 1851.
GEORGE HAMILTON GORDON
4TH EARL OF ABERDEEN [1784-1860]
The Rt. Hon. Sir George Hamilton Gordon, Bt. 4th Earl of Aberdeen, KG (1855), KT (1808), (PC 1814). Prior to October 1791 he was known as Lord Haddo, he assumed the additional name of Hamilton in November 1818. He was born on 28th January 1784, in Edinburgh, and died on 14th December 1860, at Argyll House, St James’s London, and was buried at Stanmore, Middx. His grandfather the 3rd Earl, had many illegitimate children, on whom he bestowed much of the family wealth. The Earl had married twice, first in 1805 to Lady Catherine Elizabeth Hamilton, the daughter of the Duke of Abercorn. who died in 1812. They had one son and three daughters. His second marriage was to his wife’s sister-in-law, Harriet (nee Douglas) Dowager Viscountess Hamilton, in 1815, who died in 1833. They had four sons and one daughter. His family life was a tragic one, Catherine died seven years after they married, and during this time they lost a son, and their three daughters, his second wife died after eighteen years of marriage, and their daughter a year later.
Aberdeen was educated at Harrow School, and St John’s College, Cambridge. He travelled for three years, which took him to Smyrna, and a stay in Athens, which gave him an interest in archaeology. He later became President of the Society of Antiquaries and a Trustee of the British Museum.
He was a politician whose interests were dominated by foreign affairs. He had started his political life as a diplomat, sent by Castlereagh as special envoy to the Emperor of Austria while the Allies closed in on Napoleon in 1813. In the Foreign Office he started as a junior minister, he entered the Cabinet as Foreign Secretary when the Canningites resigned in 1829. He was Peel’s Foreign Secretary from 1841 to 1846, and in his own ministry 1852 to 1855, his influence in shaping foreign policy was dominant.
When Peel died in 1850, he was chosen as a leader of the Peelites, despite his age, his ignorance of finance, his reputation for supporting despots on the continent, and suspicions that he disliked taking decisions. Two years later he became Prime Minister. It was the Crimean War which destroyed Aberdeen’s government, and left his own reputation in tatters.
He retired to Haddo, where he became increasingly overborne by a sense of guilt for the war. It was a mournful finish to a life in which there had already been much personal sadness.
HENRY JOHN TEMPLE – 3RD VISCOUNT PALMERSTON [1784-1865]
The Rt Hon. Sir Henry John Temple, 3rd and last Viscount Palmerston (a non-representative peer of Ireland), KG 1856, Knight Grand Cross of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath (GCB) 1832 (PC1809). Born on 20th October 1784 at Broadlands, near Romsey in Hampshire, he spent part of his childhood in Italy. He was the son of an Irish peer, who owned 10,000 acres around Sligo, some Welsh slate quarries and land in England worth £2,000 a year in rents. He married in 1839, the Hon. Emily Mary (nee Lamb), the Dowager Countess Cowper who died in 1869. He was educated at Harrow University of Edinburgh, and St John’s Cambridge. Their son-in-law Lord Ashley better known as Lord Shaftesbury, the reformer and founder of the Ragged School Union.
Throughout his career Palmerston promoted liberalism in Europe because he believed that the British system of responsible government would be good for all the nations of Europe. From 1809 until 1828 he was secretary at war, responsible for finances and administration of the army. He had been offered promotion, but preferred the position he had. He encouraged such uprising as the Paris revolution of 1830, the Italian revolution of 1848, and the Greek and Belgian war for independence, hoping they would lead to less absolutism in the monarchies on the Continent. Palmerston`s leading principle in foreign policy was that Britain had no permanent allies – only permanent interest. He was determined to maintain a balance of power in Europe despite the growing influence of France and Russia.
In 1830 he was appointed Foreign Secretary, and in 1855 he became Prime Minister.
He died on 18th October 1865 at Brocket Hall, Hertfordshire, he is buried at Westminster Abbey in London.
He was MP (Tory) Newport IOW 1807-11, Cambridge University 1811-31, Bletchingley 1831-2, South Hampshire 1832-4, Tiverton 1835-65; from 1829 he was a Whig and latterly a Liberal.
The Rt. Hon. Benjamin Disraeli, first and last Earl of Beaconsfield, KG (1878), (PC 1852). He was born on 21st December 1804 at either the Adelphi, Westminster, or at 22 Theobald`s Road, or St Mary Axe? Although his parents were Jews, he became a Christian in 1817. This affected his political career since, before 1858, Jews were excluded from Parliament. He died on 19th April 1881 at Curzon Street, Mayfair, London and was buried at Hughenden Manor, Bucks. There is a monument to him in Westminster Abbey. He married in 1839 Mrs Mary Anne Lewis Beaconsfield (nee Evans) later in 1868 a Viscountess (in her own right). He was educated in Lincoln, by private tutors.
As a young man Disraeli needlessly handicapped himself by dressing like a dandy and by affecting dramatic manners. The first time he tried to make a speech in the House of Commons, the other members ridiculed him.
In 1876 he had Queen Victoria proclaimed empress of India. He played a clever part against Russia in the Congress of Berlin in 1878, blocking its progress in the Balkans and saving Turkey from its domination. The queen rewarded him with the title earl of Beaconsfield and a seat in the House of Lords. In 1880 the Conservatives were defeated and he retired.
He was MP (Con) for Maidstone 1837-41, Shrewsbury 1841-7, Buckinghamshire 1847-76, when he became a peer.
The Rt. Hon William Ewart Gladstone (PC 1841). He was born on 29th December 1809 at 62 Rodney Street Liverpool, and died on 19th May 1898, at Hawarden Castle, Clwyd, and was buried at Westminster Abbey. His father was a wealthy merchant of Scottish descent and had rich plantations in the West Indies. In 1839, he married Catherine Glynne, who died in 1900, they had four sons and four daughters. He was educated at Seaforth Vicarage, Eton and Christ Church, Oxford. (Double first in Classics and Mathematics). At the age of 24 he was elected to the House of Commons as a Conservative. He was a striking speaker.
In the 1860s the more liberal Whigs, attracted some of the free-trade Conservatives. Gladstone originally a Conservative, was among those who moved toward Liberalism. The Liberals` power increased when the electorate was broadened in 1867 to include workingmen in towns.
Gladstone helped to bring about most of the great British social and political reforms of the late 19th Century. He was responsible for the first state aid to public elementary schools, for opening Oxford and Cambridge universities to men of all religions, and for introducing the secret ballot. Most of all he is remembered for his Irish reforms.
Ireland’s misery and discontent were best solved, Gladstone believed, by admitting and correcting the wrongs done by England. Although most of the people in Ireland were Roman Catholics, they were forced to pay tithes to the established Protestant church of Ireland. Gladstone led in passing an act disestablishing the Irish Protestant church in 1869. He was responsible for the first Irish Land Act in 1870. The protected landless farmers from eviction and helped them buy their farms from the absentee landlords. Finally in 1886 he introduced the first Irish Home Rule Bill, which split the Liberal party. Deserted by many Liberals, Gladstone was forced to resign as prime minister, and the bill was defeated. In his last term as prime minister, he introduced a second Home Rule Bill. It failed in the House of Lords, but this effort was important as a first step toward both Irish independence and the limitation of the Lords` veto power.
He was Tory MP for Newark 1832-45, University of Oxford 1847-65, (Peelite to 1859, thereafter a Liberal). South Lancashire 1865-8, Greenwich 1868-80, Midlothian 1880-95.
The Rt. Hon. Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, the 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, KG (1878), Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian order (GCVO) 1902, (PC 1866), known as Lord Robert Cecil till 1865, and as Viscount Cranbourne, MP, from 1865-68. He was born 3rd February 1830 at Hatfield House Hertfordshire, and died 22nd August 1903, and was buried at Hatfield. He was the second son of the second Marquess of Salisbury, but he became heir after the death of his brother in 1865. He was married in 1857 to Georgina Charlotte (nee Alderson), Lady of the Royal Order of Victoria and Albert and C.I. (Lady of the Imperial Order of the Crown of India) 1899, she died in 1899. The had four sons and three daughters.
He served briefly as secretary of state for India from 1866 to 1867. Under Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli, he again served as secretary of state for India. In 1878 he became foreign secretary and gained a reputation as a master of foreign diplomacy. For his success during the 1878 Congress of Berlin, he was granted the Order of the Garter.
Following the death of Disraeli, he led the Conservative opposition in the House of Lords. During his years as Prime Minister he also served as foreign secretary. His foreign policy was directed both toward the defense of the British Empire as well as its enlargement, particularly in Africa. Ill health forced him to retire in 1902.
He was educated at Eaton and Christ Church, Oxford (Hon 4th C1 Maths) MP (Con) for Stamford 1853-68.
SIR ARCHIBALD PRIMROSE
5TH EARL OF ROSEBERY [1847-1929]
The Rt. Mon. Sir Archibald Philip Primrose, Bt, 5th Earl of Rosebery. Born on 7th May 1847 at Charles Street, Berkley Square London, the Hon. A.P. Primrose, and known as Lord Dalmeny 1854-68, Earl of Midlothian from 1911, although he did not adopt the style. He had inherited the title from his grandfather when he was twenty, and his considerable wealth became exceptional when he married Hannah Rothschild ten years later, in 1887. (She died in 1890). He was educated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford.
He became Under Secretary at the Home Office with special responsibility for Scotland in 1881, and entered the Cabinet as Lord Privy Seal in 1885. In Gladstone`s brief third administration in 1886 he was Foreign Secretary; he was returned to the Foreign Office in 1892, and finally succeeded as Prime Minister in 1894. His ministry only lasted sixteen months. He had started by making a damaging mistake, when he told the Lords that England `as the predominant member of the Three Kingdoms` would have to be convinced of the merits of Home Rule before it could be passed; thus enraging the Irish allies on whom his Parliamentary majority rested. His attempt to initiate a reform of the House of Lords fell flat. The one significant achievement of his government, the budget introducing graduated death duties on all forms of property, was Harcourt’s, and Rosebery did not like it.
He wrote a best-selling life of Pitt, and books on Lord Randolph Churchill, the early Chatham and Napoleon in exile. He died on 21st May 1929 at The Durdans`, Epsom Surrey, and was buried at Dalmeny.
ARTHUR JAMES BALFOUR
The Rt. Hon. Arthur James Balfour (PC 1885), was born on 25th July 1848 at Whittingehame, East Lothian, Scotland, and died on 19th March 1930 at Fisher’s Hill Woking, Surrey, and buried at Whittingehame.
He did not marry, and was educated at Eton and Trinity, Cambridge. He Was MP (Con) Hertford 1847-85, East Manchester 1885-1906, City of London 1906-22.
WILLIAM RATHBONE [1819-1902]
William Rathbone VI was the eldest son of William Rathbone V and Elizabeth (nee Greg). He was a merchant, shipowner, philanthropist and MP, 1968-1895 first for Liverpool and later for Caernarvonshire. He became a partner of Rathbone Brothers and Co., general merchants, in 1842 after some time spent with Nichol, Duckworth and Co. in Liverpool, and Baring Brothers in London, and remained a partner until 1885.His first wife was Lucretia Wainwright Gair [1823-27 May 1859] daughter of Samuel Stillman Gair of Liverpool, who he married in 1847. He married again on 6 February 1862 to Esther Emily Acheson Lyle [1863-19] , daughter of Acheson Lyle of Londonderry. He had ten children: William Gair Rathbone VII [1849-1919], Elizabeth Lucretia [1851-1920], Thomas Ashton [1856-1895], Henry Gair [1853-1945], Edward Lucretius [1859-1886]., Acheson Lyle, Cyril Charles [1866-1868], Bertram Eric, Eleanor Florence[1872-1946] and Francis Warre.
He took an interest in nursing which occupied more than half his life. He was the founder of district nursing, and he recognised the importance of effective training for all nurses. He was also largely responsible for improved workhouse conditions. In 1859 soon after the death of his first wife, thinking what intense misery must be felt in the houses of the poor from the want of such home nursing care, he paid a Mrs Robinson the former private nurse of his late wife Lucretia, to go into one of the poorest districts of Liverpool and try, in nursing the poor, to relieve suffering and to teach them the rules of health and comfort.
He achieved the establishment of the Liverpool Training School and Home for Nurses in 1862, from which basis a district nursing system was implemented in Liverpool through the 1860s and spread through the country. His involvement with this scheme led him to an awareness of the poor state of the workhouse hospitals, and he did much to assist in the reform of the nursing in workhouses. In 1888-1889 he was honorary secretary, and then Vice-President of the Queen Victoria Jubilee Institute for Nurses.
He was elected a Liberal MP for Liverpool in 1868, and sat for the city until 1880, he was returned as M.P. for Carnarvonshire from 1861-1885, and for North Carnarvonshire from 1885-1895. He was closely involved in the formation of University College, Liverpool, 1882, founding a Professorship in English with his two brothers, and serving as president of the college in 1892. He also played an important part in the establishment of the University College of North Wales in 1884, of which he served as president from 1891. He was made Freeman of the City of Liverpool on 21 Oct 1891.
He died on 6 Mar 1902 at Greenbank
SIR [DR] CRAWFORD
DIRECTOR GENERAL [1882-1998]
Sir Thomas Crawford was readily accessible to Miss Nightingale and open to receive suggestions and to ask for advice. He arranged to send nurses to Egypt who she had recommended, and took the trouble to let her know of their movements
In 1883 he had spoken with Miss Nightingale about the extension of female nursing in military hospitals. the next day she sent him a full memo on the subject and emphasized two main points: 1. thorough training as to work and discipline; 2. efficient supervision. Also a list of questions to be asked of those who wished to enter as military nurses.
Died 12th October 1895
See obituary relating to Dr Crawford`s granddaughter, Margaret Smyth.
ROBERT LOWE – VISCOUNT SHERBROOKE [1811-1892]
He was born in Birmingham, and educated at Winchester College and University College Oxford. He became Vice President of the Education Board in 1859, in Lord Palmerston Government. Following the election in 1868, William Gladstone made him Chancellor of the Exchequer, and then on to the post of Home Secretary.
In 1880 he was created Viscount Sherbrooke.
MR H.B. FARNALL
SIR BARTLE FRERE [1815-1884]
He had been in the service of the Indian Government since 1834, and was an administrator of the province of Scinde, which he left in 1859, to become a member of the Viceroy’s Council. In 1862 he had been appointed Governor of Bombay. While he was there he had insanitary buildings demolished, and introduced scavenging services, established a town council, and founded a school for the education of the daughters of Indian gentlemen. He did his best to work for prosperity, introducing new crops such as cotton and sugar. The end of his term of office was clouded by the failure of the Bombay Bank, after over lending during the cotton boom created by the American Civil War. On his return to England in 1867, he was created a member of the India Council. He left the India Office in 1872, and in 1875 he accompanied the Prince of Wales on his tour of India.
Richard Southwell Bourke, 6th Earl of Mayo, was born on 21st February 1822, in Dublin. He was a member of Parliament for 20 years, representing a number of Irish constituencies. In 1868, he became Viceroy of India.
ROBERT CORNELIS NAPIER
LORD NAPIER OF MAGDALA
In 1868, his force in Abyssinia marched over 400 miles across mountains, supplies had to be carried from the coast. The force landed in January, by June the fortress of Magdala had been stormed. He had begun his career in the Bengal Engineers of the East India Company. He then became head of the Public Works Department of the Punjab
SIR JOHN LAWRENCE [1811-1879]
He went through the East India Company’s training school, with his brother Henry [1806-1857]. John went to Haileybury and Henry to Addiscombe. He loved India and its people. He was a first class administrator, and liked to be firmly in control of everything for which he was responsible. He left India in 1859, and took up a place on the new India Board. In 1863 Palmerston sent him back to India as Vicroy.